Latvia is parliamentary representative democratic republic.
Legislative power belongs to parliament (saeima), which consist of multi-party system. According to Constitution’s of Latvia paragraph 5 Saeima consist from 100 members (deputy) and they are elected for 4 year term by opened proportional representation. There is 5% threshold. Persons who are at age 18 can vote.
And deputy can be any person starting from age 21.
Functions of Saeima:
– Legislation – Saeima adopt laws, and it can change also Constitution of Latvia;
– Adopting of budget of the Latvia;
– Controlling function – Saeima is controlling work of executives (ministers) and each minister isresponsible to Saeima.
– Approval officials – Saeima is approving many officials. Saeima is approving, confirming, electing,releasing and firing Attorney general, the head of Corruption Prevention and Combating Bureau,President of the Bank of Latvia, the National Radio and Television Council, the Constitution Protection Bureau Director of the judges, the Ombudsman, the Auditor General and other officials.
– Confirmation of international agreements.
– International collaboration – Saeima is collaborating with parliaments of other countries.
Executive power belongs to government (cabinet of ministers). And head of government is prime minister. Structure and activities for ministers are confirmed in Constitution of Latvia. The President entrust person to form the cabinet of ministers.
Head of state is The President. The president of The Latvia is the highest official in The Republic of Latvia. President is elected for 4 years and maximum two times consecutive. During the absence of The President his responsibilities are executed by Chairman of the Saeima. The president has legislative initiating rights; it means that he can submit to Saeima law projects. He can call government meetings as well as Saeima meetings. He is also chief of the Armed Forces and in case of war and may be appointed to the Supreme Commander.
Duties of president:
– representing internationally The state of Latvia;
– entrusting person to form the cabinet of ministers;
– signs and announces the laws accepted by Saeima;
– he has rights to initiate dissolution of the Saeima. In such case there is organized referendum.
The Judiciary is independent. Government and parliament can’t impact it. In the Republic of Latvia, alongside legislative and executive powers, there is an independent judiciary. Judiciary in Latvia belongs to district (city) courts, regional courts, the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court. Courts in Latvia are judged only by the court.Constitutional Court competence is according to the Latvian Constitution and the Constitutional Court Law.